Volume 16, Issue 4 (Pajouhan Scientific Journal, Summer 2018)                   psj 2018, 16(4): 28-36 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

1- Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
2- Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Shabestar, Iran , hosseinamirian99 @yahoo.com
3- Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
Abstract:   (281 Views)
Background and Objectives: Smoking or second hand smoke is a basic problem in public health and it is a preventable cause of non-communicable diseases and premature deaths.  The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of tobacco consumption and the socioeconomic inequality in rural areas of Hamadan city.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from September 2012 to February 2013. The multi-stage cluster sampling was used and a total of 350 subjects were recruited. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire. Socioeconomic statuses were calculated on the basis of wealth score by using principle component analysis.The concentration index and concentration curve were used to measure and illustrate socioeconomic inequalities. P_value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: The prevalence of self-reported current smoking (1+ cigarettes per day) in men was 42.01% (95% CI: 36.72- 47.30). The mean number of cigarettes per day was 11.11±8.1. The concentration index in current smoking was -0.11 (95% CI: -0.21, - 0.01) that shows inequity distributed and significant disproportionately concentrated among the lower economic levels.
Conclusions: The results showed that the prevalence of cigarette smoking in this region was high and socio-economic inequalities were significant. These inequalities reduced by improving educational opportunities, fair income distribution, health-related behaviors.
Full-Text [PDF 307 kb]   (57 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research Article | Subject: Biostatistic & Epidemiology
Received: 2017/11/5 | Accepted: 2018/07/25

1. Harper S, McKinnon B. Global socioeconomic inequalities in tobacco use: internationally comparable estimates from the World Health Surveys. Cancer Causes & Control. 2012;23(1):11-25. [DOI]
2. Jha P. Avoidable global cancer deaths and total deaths from smoking. Nature Reviews Cancer. 2009;9(9):655-64. [DOI]
3. Organization WH. Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks: World Health Organization; 2009.
4. Brathwaite R, Addo J, Kunst AE, Agyemang C, Owusu-Dabo E, Aikins Ad-G, et al. Smoking prevalence differs by location of residence among Ghanaians in Africa and Europe: The RODAM study. PloS one. 2017;12(5):e0177291. [DOI]
5. John RM. Tobacco consumption patterns and its health implications in India. Health policy. 2005;71(2):213-22. [DOI]
6. Yu Z, Nissinen A, Vartiainen E, Song G, Guo Z, Tian H. Changes in cardiovascular risk factors in different socioeconomic groups: seven year trends in a Chinese urban population. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2000;54(9):692-6. [DOI]
7. Granville A, McKeever T, Murray R, Nilan K. OP65 A systematic review of the prevalence of smoking in healthcare students. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd; 2017.
8. Meysamie A, Ghaletaki R, Zhand N, Abbasi M. Cigarette smoking in Iran. Iranian journal of public health. 2012;41(2):1. (Persian)
9. Qahvehchi F, MohammadKhani S. The Correlation between Metacognitive Beliefs, Coping Strategies, and Negative Emotions with Students' Smoking. ZUMS Journal. 2012;20(81):93-102. (Persian)
10. Douthit NT, Biswas S, Global Health Education and Advocacy: Using BMJ Case Reports to Tackle the Social Determinants of Health. Front Public Health. 2018; 6: 114. [DOI]
11. Muntaner C, Rai N, Ng E, Chung H. Social class, politics, and the spirit level: Why income inequality remains unexplained and unsolved. International Journal of Health Services, 2012. 42(3):369-381. [DOI]
12. Hehir B. Well-being-Individual, Community and Social Perspectives. Nursing Standard (through 2013), 2007; 22(13):30.
13. Krieger N: A glossary for social epidemiology. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001, 55 (10): 693-700. [DOI]
14. Kakwani N, A. Wagstaff A, Van Doorslaer E. Socioeconomic inequalities in health: measurement, computation, and statistical inference. Journal of econometrics, 1997; 77(1):87-103. [DOI]
15. Renahy E, Alvarado-Llano B, Koh M, Quesnel-Vallée A. Income and economic exclusion: do they measure the same concept? International journal for equity in health. 2012;11(1):4. [DOI]
16. Hosseinpoor AR, Mohammad K, Majdzadeh R, Naghavi M, Abolhassani F, Sousa A, et al. Socioeconomic inequality in infant mortality in Iran and across its provinces. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2005;83(11):837-44. [DOI]
17. Rashidian A, Karimi-Shahanjarini A, Khosravi A, Elahi E, Beheshtian M, Shakibazadeh E, et al. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey - 2010: Study Protocol. Int J Prev Med. 2014 May;5(5):632-42.
18. Kline P. An easy guide to factor analysis. 2014: Routledge.
19. Plichta SB, Kelvin EA, Munro BH. Munro's statistical methods for health care research. 2013: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
20. Balen J, McManus DP, Li YS, Zhao ZY, Yuan LP, Utzinger J, et al. Comparison of two approaches for measuring household wealth via an asset-based index in rural and peri-urban settings of Hunan province, China. Emerging themes in epidemiology. 2010;7(7):1-17. [DOI]
21. Kakwani N, Wagstaff A, Van Doorslaer E. Socioeconomic inequalities in health: measurement, computation, and statistical inference. Journal of econometrics. 1997;77(1):87-103.
22. Ghorbani R, Malek M, Eskandarian R, Rashidy-Pour A. Epidemiology of smoking in an Iranian population (Semnan province): a population-based study. Koomesh. 2012;13(2):Pe247-Pe53, En33. (Persian)
23. Goli S, Mahjub H, Moghimbeigi A, Poorolajal J, Heidari Pahlavian A. Application of mixture models for estimating the prevalence of cigarette smoking in hamadan, iran. Journal of research in health sciences. 2010;10(2):110-5. (Persian)
24. Zia AS, Zia AM. The prevalence of tobacco use and dependency and its relation to some demographic factors in people aged 12 and over in rural sample. 2006.
25. Hutchinson SG, van Schayck CP, Muris JWM, Feron FJM. Dompeling E. Recruiting families for an intervention study to prevent second-hand smoke exposure in children. BMC Pediatr, 2018. 18(1):19. [DOI]
26. Klosky JL, Tyc VL, Lawford J, Ashford J, Lensing S, Buscemi J. Predictors of non‐participation in a randomized intervention trial to reduce environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in pediatric cancer patients. Pediatric blood & cancer. 2009;52(5):644-9. [DOI]
27. Emamian M, Alami A, Fateh M. Socioeconomic inequality in non-communicable disease risk factors in Shahroud, Iran. iranian Journal of epidemiology. 2011;7(3):44-51. (Persian)
28. Ayubi E, Sani M, Safiri S, Khedmati Morasae E, Almasi-Hashiani A, Nazarzadeh M. Socioeconomic determinants of inequality in smoking stages: A distributive analysis on a sample of male high school students. American journal of men's health. 2017;11(4):1162-8. [DOI]
29. 30. McGrail KM, Van Doorslaer E, Ross NA, Sanmartin C. Income-related health inequalities in Canada and the United States: a decomposition analysis. American Journal of Public Health. 2009;99(10):1856. [DOI]
30. Fukuda Y, Nakamura K, Takano T. Socioeconomic pattern of smoking in Japan: income inequality and gender and age differences. Annals of epidemiology. 2005;15(5):365-72. [DOI]
31. Moradi G, Mohammad K, Majdzadeh R, Ardakani HM, Naieni KH. Socioeconomic inequality of non-communicable risk factors among people living in Kurdistan Province, Islamic Republic of Iran. International journal of preventive medicine. 2013;4(6):671.
32. Amirian, H, Poorolajal J, Roshanaei, Esmailnasab N, Moradi G. Analyzing socioeconomic related health inequality in mothers and children using the concentration index. Epidemiology Biostatistics and Public Health, 2014.11(3):e9086-1. [DOI]