Volume 21, Issue 4 (Pajouhan Scientific Journal, Autumn 2023)                   Pajouhan Sci J 2023, 21(4): 263-275 | Back to browse issues page

Ethics code: (IR.UMA.REC.1400.047)

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

herangza M, hajloo N, narimani M, basharpoor S. Designing and Testing the Structural Model of Addiction to Online Games Based on Brain-behavioral Systems and Metacognitive Beliefs. Pajouhan Sci J 2023; 21 (4) :263-275
URL: http://psj.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-1035-en.html
1- Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran
2- Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran , hajloo53@uma.ac.ir
3- Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran
Abstract:   (170 Views)
Background and Objectives: Addiction to online games negatively affects the physical and mental health of adolescents. The present study was conducted to investigate the mediating role of metacognitive beliefs in the relationship between behavioral brain systems and addiction to online games.
Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive-correlation type. The statistical population included all the first-year high school students (teenagers) in the Bastak education district in Hormozgan, Iran, who were studying in the academic year of 2021-2022, and 350 people were selected as a sample using the multi-stage cluster random sampling method. They responded to the questionnaires on behavioral inhibition/activation systems, the metacognition scale of online games, and addiction to online games. Structural modeling was used to analyze the collected data.
Results: The results showed that behavioral activation systems and behavioral inhibition systems had a significant direct relationship with addiction to online games, with coefficient values of 0.41 and 0.32, respectively (P<0.001). In addition, behavioral activation systems and behavioral inhibition systems had a significant relationship with online game addiction indirectly, with a coefficient value of 0.18 and 0.13, respectively (P<0.001) through the mediation of metacognitive beliefs.
Conclusion: To reduce addiction to online games, therapists and specialists should examine and evaluate the behavioral brain systems of people on the one hand and, on the other hand, seek to reduce the mechanism of incompatible metacognitive beliefs, along with cognitive and retrospective challenges.
Full-Text [PDF 1172 kb]   (61 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research Article | Subject: Psychology and Psychiatry
Received: 2023/07/17 | Accepted: 2023/11/5 | Published: 2023/12/1

1. Kaya A, Dalgiç AI. How does internet addiction affect adolescent lifestyles? Results from a school-based study in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Journal of pediatric nursing. 2021 Jul 1;59:e38-43. [DOI] [PubMed]
2. Young K. Understanding online gaming addiction and treatment issues for adolescents. The American journal of family therapy. 2009 Sep 28;37(5):355-72. https://doi.org/10.1080/01926180902942191 [DOI]
3. Yilmaz R, Sulak S, Griffiths MD, Yilmaz FG. An exploratory examination of the relationship between internet gaming disorder, smartphone addiction, social appearance anxiety and aggression among undergraduate students. Journal of Affective Disorders Reports. 2023 Jan 1;11:100483. [DOI]
4. Tsui YY, Cheng C. Internet gaming disorder, risky online behaviour, and mental health in Hong Kong adolescents: the beneficial role of psychological resilience. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2021 Oct 15;12:722353. [DOI] [PubMed]
5. Wang HR, Cho H, Kim DJ. Prevalence and correlates of comorbid depression in a nonclinical online sample with DSM-5 internet gaming disorder. Journal of affective disorders. 2018 Jan 15;226:1-5. [DOI] [PubMed]
6. Islam MR, Apu MM, Akter R, Tultul PS, Anjum R, Nahar Z, Shahriar M, Bhuiyan MA. Internet addiction and loneliness among school-going adolescents in Bangladesh in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: Findings from a cross-sectional study. Heliyon. 2023 Feb 1;9(2). [DOI] [PubMed]
7. Erdogan O. The mediator's role of communication skills in the effect of social skills on digital game addiction. Acta Psychologica. 2023 Jul 1;237:103948. [DOI] [PubMed]
8. American Psychiatric Association DS, American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Washington, DC: American psychiatric association; 2013 May 22.
9. Labana RV, Hadjisaid JL, Imperial AR, Jumawid KE, Lupague MJ, Malicdem DC. Online game addiction and the level of depression among adolescents in Manila, Philippines. Central Asian Journal of Global Health. 2020;9(1). [DOI] [PubMed]
10. Wallenius M, Rimpelä A, Punamäki RL, Lintonen T. Digital game playing motives among adolescents: Relations to parent–child communication, school performance, sleeping habits, and perceived health. Journal of applied developmental psychology. 2009 Jul 1;30(4):463-74. [DOI]
11. Jo YS, Bhang SY, Choi JS, Lee HK, Lee SY, Kweon YS. Clinical characteristics of diagnosis for internet gaming disorder: comparison of DSM-5 IGD and ICD-11 GD diagnosis. Journal of clinical medicine. 2019 Jun 28;8(7):945. [DOI]
12. Davis RA. A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use. Computers in human behavior. 2001 Mar 1;17(2):187-95. [DOI]
13. Gray JA, McNaughton N. The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system (Oxford psychology series). New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
14. Standen, B., Firth, J., Sumich, A., & Heym, N. The neural correlates of reinforcement sensitivity theory: A systematic review of the (f)MRI literature. Psychology & Neuroscience. 2022; 15(4), 395–422. [DOI]
15. Rho MJ, Lee H, Lee TH, Cho H, Jung D, Kim DJ, Choi IY. Risk factors for internet gaming disorder: Psychological factors and internet gaming characteristics. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2018 Jan;15(1):40. [DOI] [PubMed]
16. Aydınlıyurt ET, Taşkın N, Scahill S, Toker A. Continuance intention in gamified mobile applications: A study of behavioral inhibition and activation systems. International Journal of Information Management. 2021 Dec 1;61:102414. [DOI]
17. Vargas T, Maloney J, Gupta T, Damme KS, Kelley NJ, Mittal VA. Measuring facets of reward sensitivity, inhibition, and impulse control in individuals with problematic Internet use. Psychiatry research. 2019 May 1;275:351-8. [DOI] [PubMed]
18. Dong H, Zheng H, Wang M, Ye S, Dong GH. The unbalanced behavioral activation and inhibition system sensitivity in internet gaming disorder: evidence from resting-state Granger causal connectivity analysis. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 2022 Dec 20;119:110582. [DOI] [PubMed]
19. Meerkerk GJ, van den Eijnden RJ, Franken IH, Garretsen HF. Is compulsive internet use related to sensitivity to reward and punishment, and impulsivity?. Computers in human behavior. 2010 Jul 1;26(4):729-35. [DOI]
20. Wang ZL, Potenza MN, Song KR, Fang XY, Liu L, Ma SS, Xia CC, Lan J, Yao YW, Zhang JT. Neural classification of internet gaming disorder and prediction of treatment response using a cue-reactivity fMRI task in young men. Journal of psychiatric research. 2022 Jan 1;145:309-16. [DOI] [PubMed]
21. Berger U, Anaki D. The behavioral inhibition system (BIS) mediates major aspects of the relationship between disgust and OCD symptomology. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. 2014 Jul 1;3(3):249-56. [DOI]
22. Wells A. Advances in metacognitive therapy. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. 2013 Jun;6(2):186-201. [DOI]
23. Spada MM, Wells A. Metacognitions about alcohol use in problem drinkers. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy: An International Journal of Theory & Practice. 2006 Mar;13(2):138-43. [DOI]
24. Nikčević AV, Caselli G, Wells A, Spada MM. The metacognitions about smoking questionnaire: development and psychometric properties. Addictive behaviors. 2015 May 1;44:102-7. [DOI] [PubMed]
25. Caselli G, Fernie B, Canfora F, Mascolo C, Ferrari A, Antonioni M, Giustina L, Donato G, Marcotriggiani A, Bertani A, Altieri A. The metacognitions about gambling questionnaire: Development and psychometric properties. Psychiatry Research. 2018 Mar 1;261:367-74. [DOI]
26. Akbari M. Metacognitions or distress intolerance: The mediating role in the relationship between emotional dysregulation and problematic internet use. Addictive Behaviors Reports. 2017 Dec 1;6:128-33. [DOI]
27. Caselli G, Marino C, Spada MM. Modelling online gaming metacognitions: The role of time spent gaming in predicting problematic Internet use. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. 2021 Jun;39:172-82. [DOI]
28. Casale S, Caponi L, Fioravanti G. Metacognitions about problematic Smartphone use: Development of a self-report measure. Addictive Behaviors. 2020 Oct 1;109:106484. [DOI] [PubMed]
29. Akbari M, Bahadori MH, Khanbabaei S, Milan BB, Horvath Z, Griffiths MD, Demetrovics Z. Metacognitions as a predictor of problematic social media use and internet gaming disorder: Development and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Social Media Use Scale (MSMUS). Addictive Behaviors. 2023 Feb 1;137:107541. [DOI] [PubMed]
30. Chen H, Ma J, Guan J, Yin L, Shi Z, Zhang Y. The impact of psychological distress on problematic smartphone use among college students: The mediating role of metacognitions about smartphone use. Frontiers in Psychology. 2022 Sep 20;13:932838. [DOI] [PubMed]
31. Marino C, Canale N, Vieno A, Caselli G, Scacchi L, Spada MM. Social anxiety and Internet gaming disorder: The role of motives and metacognitions. Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 2020 Oct 12;9(3):617-28. [DOI] [PubMed]
32. Sistad RE, Simons RM, Simons JS. Sensitivity to reward and punishment and alcohol outcomes: Metacognition as a moderator. Addictive behaviors reports. 2019 Dec 1;10:100213. [DOI] [PubMed]
33. Homan AH. Structural Equation Modeling Using LaserL Software. Tehran: Samt; 2014. (Persian)
34. Carver CS, White TL. Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: the BIS/BAS scales. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1994 Aug;67(2):319-333. [DOI]
35. Babapour Khairuddin, J., Dadashzadeh, R. & Toosi, F. Comparison of brain-behavioral systems of smokers and non-smokers. New Psychological Research Quarterly. 2011; 6(23), pp. 12-13. (Persian)
36. Spada MM, Caselli G. The metacognitions about online gaming scale: Development and psychometric properties. Addictive Behaviors. 2017 Jan 1;64:281-6. [DOI] [PubMed]
37. Droodgar, A. and Fathi Ashtiani, A. Examining the psychometric properties of the metacognition scale of online games. Educational Measurement Quarterly of Allameh Tabatabai University.2017; The eighth year, number 31, pp. 151-166. (Persian)
38. Zandi payam A, Davoudi I, mehrabi zadeh M,.Validation of Online Game Addiction Inventory. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2016; 21(4): 351-361. (Persian)
39. Kim K, Ryu E, Chon MY, Yeun EJ, Choi SY, Seo JS, Nam BW. Internet addiction in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: a questionnaire survey. International journal of nursing studies. 2006 Feb 1;43(2):185-92. [DOI] [PubMed]
40. Pavlov G, Maydeu-Olivares A, Shi D. Using the standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) to assess exact fit in structural equation models. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 2021 Feb;81(1):110-30. [DOI] [PubMed]
41. Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD, Binder JF. Internet addiction in students: Prevalence and risk factors. Computers in Human Behavior. 2013 May 1;29(3):959-66. [DOI]
42. Wahlstrom D, Collins P, White T, Luciana M. Developmental changes in dopamine neurotransmission in adolescence: behavioral implications and issues in assessment. Brain and cognition. 2010 Feb 1;72(1):146-59. [DOI] [PubMed]
43. Elovainio M, Kivimäki M, Viikari J, Ekelund J, Keltikangas-Järvinen L. The mediating role of novelty seeking in the association between the type 4 dopamine receptor gene polymorphism and cigarette-smoking behavior. Personality and Individual Differences. 2005 Feb 1;38(3):639-45. [DOI]
44. Spada MM, Caselli G, Nikčević AV, Wells A. Metacognition in addictive behaviors. Addictive behaviors. 2015 May 1;44:9-15. [DOI] [PubMed]
45. Meyer B, Johnson SL, Winters R. Responsiveness to threat and incentive in bipolar disorder: Relations of the BIS/BAS scales with symptoms. Journal of psychopathology and behavioral assessment. 2001 Sep;23:133-43. [DOI] [PubMed]
46. Casale S, Caplan SE, Fioravanti G. Positive metacognitions about Internet use: The mediating role in the relationship between emotional dysregulation and problematic use. Addictive behaviors. 2016 Aug 1;59:84-8. [DOI] [PubMed]
47. Wells A, Fisher P, Myers S, Wheatley J, Patel T, Brewin CR. Metacognitive therapy in recurrent and persistent depression: A multiple-baseline study of a new treatment. Cognitive therapy and research. 2009 Jun;33:291-300. [DOI]
48. Nejati V, Fathi E, Shahidi S, Salehinejad MA. Cognitive training for modifying interpretation and attention bias in depression: Relevance to mood improvement and implications for cognitive intervention in depression. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2019 Jan 1;39:23-8. [DOI] [PubMed]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Pajouhan Scientific Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb