Volume 19, Issue 5 (Pajouhan Scientific Journal, Autumn 2021)                   Pajouhan Sci J 2021, 19(5): 27-35 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Bahrami A, Fatehizadeh M, Abedi A, Dayarian M M. Investigating and Discovering the Affecting Factors in Positive Parent-Child Interactions: A Qualitative Study. Pajouhan Sci J 2021; 19 (5) :27-35
URL: http://psj.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-861-en.html
1- Department of Counseling, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr, Iran
2- Department of Counseling, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran , mfatehizade@edu.ui.ac.ir
3- Department of Psychology and Education of Children with Special Needs, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Abstract:   (1231 Views)
Aims: Positive parent-child interactions promote children's social, cognitive, and emotional skills development. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting parent-child interactions.
Materias & Method: The present study was conducted with a qualitative method and inductive approach. Participants were parents (15 people) and specialists (3 people) in Isfahan who were selected by purposive sampling method according to the inclusion criteria. Individuals' experiences were assessed using a semi-structured interview tool. Data were saturated with 18 interviews and coded and analyzed by Atridesterling (2001) thematic analysis method.
Findings: In the first stage of coding, 79 basic themes were extracted from the interviews. In the second stage, based on the maximum consistency of the obtained concepts were abstracted 15 organizing themes. In the third stage, 4 themes including positive parenting; authoritative parenting; resilience; environmental diversity were identified as comprehensive themes related to the effective factors in positive parent-child interactions. Data validation was performed by the participants' feedback and independent coders methods. Also, in order to validate the topics, a group of experts (3experts) was used and the criteria for determining the accuracy and robustness of the data were reviewed and approved.
Conclusion: The results show that parents' awareness of parenting practices, how to use positive coping strategies, and enrich children by increasing environmental attractiveness, are important and effective factors in improving parent-child interactions. Therefore, it is suggested that these factors be considered in the development of special education programs for parents and children.
Full-Text [PDF 615 kb]   (800 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research Article | Subject: Medicine & Clinical Sciences
Received: 2021/12/16 | Accepted: 2021/12/1 | Published: 2021/12/1

1. Miller PH. Theories of developmental psychology. 6th edition. New York: Worth Publishers; 2016.
2. Maia GN, Frizzo GB, Levandowski DC. Psychofunctional symptoms in infants of young mothers: Association with maternal mental health and parental bonding. Early Hum Dev. 2020;141:104938. [DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2019.104938] [PMID]
3. Pekarsky R. Effect of the child directed interaction phase of parent-child interaction therapy on behavioral impulsivity in young children. Hempstead: Hofstra University; 2012.
4. Nguyen T, Banki A, Markova G, Hoehl S. Studying parent-child interaction with hyperscanning. Prog Brain Res. 2020;254:1-24. [DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.05.003] [PMID]
5. Zare Bahramabadi M, Zahrakar K, Salehian Broojerdi H, Mohammadifar M. The effectiveness of relationship enhancement program on quality of parent-child relationship in mothers who are heads of household in single-parent families. J Clin Psychol. 2013;5(2):14-24. [Persian]
6. Kim W, Lee S, Kim S, Jo S, Yoo C, Hwang I, et al. Dyadic mirror: Everyday second-person live-view for empathetic reflection upon parent-child interaction. Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies. 2020;4(3):1-29. [DOI:10.1145/3411815]
7. Mei-Ju C, Chen-Hsin Y, Pin-Chen H. The beauty of character education on preschool children's parent-child relationship. Procedia-Soc Behav Sci. 2014;143:527-33. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.431]
8. Berry LS, Stoyles G, Donovan M. Postseparation parenting education in a family relationship centre: A pilot study exploring the impact on perceived parent-child relationship and acrimony. J Fam Stud. 2010;16(3):224-36. [DOI:10.5172/jfs.16.3.224]
9. Maher EJ, Marcynyszyn LA, Corwin TW, Hodnett R. Dosage matters: The relationship between participation in the nurturing parenting program for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers and subsequent child maltreatment. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2011;33(8):1426-34. [DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.04.014]
10. Golinkoff RM, Can DD, Soderstrom M, Hirsh-Pasek K. (Baby) talk to me: The social context of infant-directed speech and its effects on early language acquisition. Curr Directions Psychol Sci. 2015;24(5):339-44. [DOI:10.1177/0963721415595345]
11. Roshan M, Aghayousefi A, Alipour A, Rezaee A. Effectiveness comparison of parent-child interaction therapy and mother's coping therapy on reduction of intensity of child behavior problems in 3-6 year old children. Clinical Psychology and Personality. 2020;14(1):111-23. [Persian]
12. Lalonde G, Bernier A, Beaudoin C, Gravel J, Beauchamp MH. Factors contributing to parent-child interaction quality following mild traumatic brain injury in early childhood. J Neuropsychol. 2020;14(1):98-120. [DOI:10.1111/jnp.12179] [PMID]
13. Moharreri F, Soltanifar A, Khalesi H, Eslami N. The evaluation of efficacy of the positive parenting for parents in order improvement of relationship with their adolescents. Med J Mashhad Univ Med Sci. 2012;55(2):116-23. [Persian]
14. Sheperis C, Sheperis D, Monceaux A, Davis RJ, Lopez B. Parent-child interaction therapy for children with special needs. Prof Couns. 2015;5(2):248-60. [DOI:10.15241/cs.5.2.248]
15. Stright AD, Neitzel C, Sears KG, Hoke-Sinex L. Instruction begins in the home: Relations between parental instruction and children's self-regulation in the classroom. J Educ Psychol. 2001;93(3):456-66. [DOI:10.1037/0022-0663.93.3.456]
16. Black MM, Walker SP, Fernald LC, Andersen CT, DiGirolamo AM, Lu C, et al. Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course. Lancet. 2017;389(10064):77-90. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31389-7] [PMID]
17. Anderson PJ, Reidy N. Assessing executive function in preschoolers. Neuropsychol Rev. 2012;22(4):345-60. [DOI:10.1007/s11065-012-9220-3] [PMID]
18. Sexton TL. Functional family therapy: An evidence-based, family-focused, and systemic approach for working with adolescents and their families. In: Fiese BH, Celano M, Deater-Deckard K, Jouriles EN, Whisman MA. (Eds.). APA handbook of contemporary family psychology: Family therapy and training. Washington DC: American Psychological Association; 2019. pp. 171-88.
19. Ali Ghanavati S, Sharifi T, Ghazanfari A, Abedi MR, Taghavi A. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Educational Package on Attachment Quality of Children with Inadequate Mother-Child Interaction. Empower Except Child. 2019;10(2):237-49. [Persian]
20. León E, Steele M, Palacios J, Román M, Moreno C. Parenting adoptive children: Reflective functioning and parent-child interactions. A comparative, relational and predictive study. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2018;95(C):352-60. [DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.11.009]
21. Choi EJ, Taylor MJ, Hong SB, Kim C, Yi SH. The neural correlates of attachment security in typically developing children. Brain Cogn. 2018;124:47-56. [DOI:10.1016/j.bandc.2018.04.003] [PMID]
22. Attride-Stirling J. Thematic networks: An analytic tool for qualitative research. Qual Res. 2001;1(3):385-405. [DOI:10.1177/146879410100100307]
23. Abedi Ja'fari H, Taslimi M, Faghihi A, Sheikhzade M. Thematic analysis and thematic networks: A simple and efficient method for exploring patterns embedded in qualitative data municipalities. Strategic Manag Thought. 2011;5(2):151-98. [Persian]
24. Burger K. Effective early childhood care and education: Successful approaches and didactic strategies for fostering child development. Eur Early Child Educ Res J. 2015;23(5):743-60. [DOI:10.1080/1350293X.2014.882076]
25. Kohlhoff J, Morgan S, Briggs N, Egan R, Niec L. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Toddlers in a community‐based setting: Improvements in parenting behavior, emotional availability, child behavior, and attachment. Infant MentHealth J. 2020;41(4):543-62. [DOI:10.1002/imhj.21864] [PMID]
26. Mofrad S, Abdullah R, Samah BA. Perceived parental overprotection and separation anxiety: Does specific parental rearing serve as specific risk factor. Asian Soc Sci. 2009;5(11):109-16. [DOI:10.5539/ass.v5n11p109]
27. Damodaran DK. Parent child interaction therapy (PCIT): Child well-being through an effective parenting intervention. Asian J Nurs Res. 2015;3(1):37-9. [DOI:10.2139/ssrn.2629025]
28. Stephens MA. Gender differences in parenting styles and effects on the parent-child relationship [dissertation]. Texas: Texas State University-San Marcos; 2009.
29. Zhang X. Parent-child and teacher-child relationships in Chinese preschoolers: The moderating role of preschool experiences and the mediating role of social competence. Early Child Res Q. 2011;26(2):192-204. [DOI:10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.09.001]
30. Bondy EM, Mash EJ. Parenting efficacy, perceived control over caregiving failure, and mothers' reactions to preschool children's misbehavior. Child Stud J. 1999;29(3):157-73.
31. Masomi Zare M, Etemadi O, Ahmadi SA. The effectiveness of integrative group training approach (positive parenting program and behavior therapy) to improve mother child relationship. Res Clin Psychol Couns. 2013;2(2):117-32. [Persian]
32. McCabe K, Yeh M, Lau A, Argote CB, Liang J. Parent-child interactions among low-income Mexican American parents and preschoolers: Do clinic-referred families differ from nonreferred families? Behav Ther. 2010;41(1):82-92. [DOI:10.1016/j.beth.2009.01.003] [PMID] []
33. Callanan MA, Legare CH, Sobel DM, Jaeger GJ, Letourneau S, McHugh SR, et al. Exploration, explanation, and parent-child interaction in museums. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 2020;85(1):7-137. [DOI:10.1111/mono.12412] [PMID] []
34. Bagner DM, Eyberg SM. Parent-child interaction therapy for disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2007;36(3):418-29. [DOI:10.1080/15374410701448448] [PMID]
35. Greco LA, Sorrell JT, McNeil CB. Understanding manual-based behavior therapy: Some theoretical foundations of parent-child interaction therapy. Child Fam Behav Ther. 2001;23(4):21-36. [DOI:10.1300/J019v23n04_02]
36. Pempek TA, Lauricella AR. The effects of parent-child interaction and media use on cognitive development in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. In: Blumberg FC, Brooks PJ, editors. Cognitive development in digital contexts. Cambridge: Academic Press; 2017. p. 53-74. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-809481-5.00003-1]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Pajouhan Scientific Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb