Volume 19, Issue 5 (Pajouhan Scientific Journal, Autumn 2021)                   Pajouhan Sci J 2021, 19(5): 13-19 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Sepahvand T, Bahrami A, Bayat M. Difficulties in Emotion Regulation in Smoker Students with and without Social Anxiety. Pajouhan Sci J 2021; 19 (5) :13-19
URL: http://psj.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-859-en.html
1- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Arak University, Arak, Iran , T-sepahvand@araku.ac.ir
2- Department of Motor Behavior and Sport Psychology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Arak University, Arak, Iran
3- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahih Madani University, Tabriz, Iran
Abstract:   (1382 Views)
Aims: There is a high prevalence of smoking in individuals with psychiatric disorders. This research was conducted to compare difficulties in emotion regulation in smoker students with and without social anxiety.
Materials & Methods: This descriptive study included all undergraduate students who smoked at Arak University from 2018 to 2019. The statistical population was all smokers, undergraduate students, at Arak University (Arak, Iran). The purposive sampling method was used to select the research sample. At first, 120 people completed the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Then, based on the cutoff point scores of SPIN (19 to above), two divided groups, including two smoker groups with and without social anxiety (n=30 in each group), were selected and compared in terms of difficulties in emotion regulation.
Findings: The results of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) indicated not a significant difference in the linear composition of dependent variables in two groups (Wilks, lambda= 0.722, F46,6= 2.269, p= 0.053). Univariate analysis of variance indicated a significant difference in the two groups only in the Difficulties Engaging in Goal-Directed Behavior (GOALS) component.
Conclusion: The smoker students with social anxiety have more difficulties in GOALS. Therefore, it is proposed, this difficulty can be reduced using the education of emotion regulation skills.
Full-Text [PDF 542 kb]   (965 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research Article | Subject: Medicine & Clinical Sciences
Received: 2021/12/16 | Accepted: 2021/12/1 | Published: 2021/12/1

1. Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. Jama. 2004;291(10):1238-45. [DOI:10.1001/jama.291.10.1238] [PMID]
2. Besson M, Forget B. Cognitive dysfunction, affective states, and vulnerability to nicotine addiction: A multifactorial perspective. Front in Psychiatry. 2016;7:160. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00160] [PMID] []
3. Nasser AMA, Geng Y, Al-Wesabi SA. The prevalence of smoking (Cigarette and waterpipe) among university students in some Arab countries: A systematic review. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2020;21(3):583-91. [DOI:10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.3.583] [PMID] []
4. Piper ME, Cook JW, Schlam TR, Jorenby DE, Baker TB. Anxiety diagnoses in smokers seeking cessation treatment: relations with tobacco dependence, withdrawal, outcome and response to treatment. Addiction. 2011;106(2):418-27. [DOI:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03173.x] [PMID] []
5. DeWall CN, Buckner JD, Lambert NM, Cohen AS, Fincham FD. Bracing for the worst, but behaving the best: Social anxiety, hostility, and behavioral aggression. J Anxiety Disord. 2010;24(2):260-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.12.002] [PMID]
6. Cremers HR, Roelofs K. Social anxiety disorder: A critical overview of neurocognitive research. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci. 2016;7(4):218-32. [DOI:10.1002/wcs.1390] [PMID]
7. Dalrymple KL, Galione J, Hrabosky J, Chelminski I, Young D, O'Brien E, et al. Diagnosing social anxiety disorder in the presence of obesity: Implications for a proposed change in DSM‐5. Depress Anxiety. 2011;28(5):377-82. [DOI:10.1002/da.20794] [PMID]
8. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P. Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. 12th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW); 2015.
9. O'Toole MS, Zachariae R, Mennin DS. Social anxiety and emotion regulation flexibility: Considering emotion intensity and type as contextual factors. Anxiety Stress, & Coping. 2017;30(6):716-24. [DOI:10.1080/10615806.2017.1346792] [PMID]
10. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). Virginia:American Psychiatric Pub; 2013. [DOI:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596]
11. Perry M. Understanding social anxiety symptoms through interpersonal emotion regulation strategies. Mississippi: Electronic Theses and Dissertations; 2020.
12. Keough MT, Badawi G, Nitka D, O'Connor RM, Stewart SH. Impulsivity increases risk for coping-motivated drinking in undergraduates with elevated social anxiety. Pers Individ Dif. 2016;88(1):45-50. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.036] [PMID] []
13. Watson NL, Heffner JL, McClure JB, Bricker JB. Relationships between social anxiety and smoking-specific experiential avoidance. J Dual Diagn. 2017;13(1):1-5. [DOI:10.1080/15504263.2016.1248310] [PMID] []
14. Salters-Pedneault K, Roemer L, Tull MT, Rucker L, Mennin DS. Evidence of broad deficits in emotion regulation associated with chronic worry and generalized anxiety disorder. Cogn Ther Res. 2006;30(4):469-80. [DOI:10.1007/s10608-006-9055-4]
15. Gross JJ. Emotion regulation in adulthood: Timing is everything. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2001;10(6):214-9. [DOI:10.1111/1467-8721.00152]
16. Gross JJ. Emotion regulation: Current status and future prospects. Psychol Inq. 2015;26(1):1-26. [DOI:10.1080/1047840X.2014.940781]
17. Rutherford HJ, Wallace NS, Laurent HK, Mayes LC. Emotion regulation in parenthood. Dev Rev. 2015;36:1-14. [DOI:10.1016/j.dr.2014.12.008] [PMID] []
18. Gratz KL, Roemer L. Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2004;26(1):41-54. [DOI:10.1023/B:JOBA.0000007455.08539.94]
19. Eres R, Lim MH, Lanham S, Jillard C, Bates G. Loneliness and emotion regulation: Implications of having social anxiety disorder. Aust J Psychol. 2021;73(1):46-56. [DOI:10.1080/00049530.2021.1904498]
20. Goodman FR, Kashdan TB, İmamoğlu A. Valuing emotional control in social anxiety disorder: A multimethod study of emotion beliefs and emotion regulation. Emotion. 2021:21(4):842-55. [DOI:10.1037/emo0000750] [PMID]
21. Rodebaugh TL, Heimberg RG. Emotion regulation and the anxiety disorders: Adopting a self-regulation perspective. Vingerhoets JJM, Nyklíček I, Denollet J, editors. Emotion Regulation. Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 140-9. [DOI:10.1007/978-0-387-29986-0_9]
22. Werner KH, Goldin PR, Ball TM, Heimberg RG, Gross JJ. Assessing emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder: The emotion regulation interview. J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2011;33(3):346-54. [DOI:10.1007/s10862-011-9225-x]
23. Mashhadi A, Gasempoor A, Akbari E, Elbeigi R, Hasanzadeh S. The role of anxiety sensitivity and emotion regulation in prediction of students social anxiety disorder. Knowl Res Appl Psychol. 2013;14(52):89-99. [Persian]
24. Esmaeilinasab M, Andami Khoshk A, Azarmi H, Samar Rokhi A. The predicting role of difficulties in emotion regulation and distress tolerance in students' addiction potential. Res Addict. 2014;8(29):49-63. [Persian]
25. You DS, Rassu FS, Meagher MW. Emotion regulation strategies moderate the impact of negative affect induction on alcohol craving in college drinkers: An experimental paradigm. J Am Coll Health. 2021. [In Press] [DOI:10.1080/07448481.2021.1942884] [PMID]
26. Kashdan TB, Elhai JD, Breen WE. Social anxiety and disinhibition: An analysis of curiosity and social rank appraisals, approach-avoidance conflicts, and disruptive risk-taking behavior. J Anxiety Disord. 2008;22(6):925-39. [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.09.009] [PMID] []
27. Kashdan TB. Social anxiety spectrum and diminished positive experiences: Theoretical synthesis and meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2007;27(3):348-65. [DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2006.12.003] [PMID]
28. Kashdan TB, McKnight PE. The darker side of social anxiety: When aggressive impulsivity prevails over shy inhibition. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2010;19(1):47-50. [DOI:10.1177/0963721409359280]
29. Ayduk O, Mendoza-Denton R, Mischel W, Downey G, Peake PK, Rodriguez M. Regulating the interpersonal self: Strategic self-regulation for coping with rejection sensitivity. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000;79(5):776-92. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.79.5.776] [PMID]
30. Kashefinishabouri J, Eftekhar Saadi Z, Pasha R, Heidari A, Makvandi B. The effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and emotion-regulation training on rumination and social anxiety in teenagers prone to addiction. J Occup Health Epidemiol. 2021;10(1):1-11.
31. Delavar A. Research methods in psychology and educational sciences. Tehran: Virayesh; 2006
32. Alavi K, Modarres Gharavi M, Amin-Yazdi, SA, Salehi Fadardi, J. Effectiveness of group dialectical behavior therapy (based on core mindfulness, distress tolerance and emotion regulation components) on depressive symptoms in university students. J Fundamentals Mental Health. 2011;13(2):124-35.
33. Connor KM, Davidson JR, Churchill LE, Sherwood A, Weisler RH, Foa E. Psychometric properties of the social phobia inventory (SPIN): New self-rating scale. Br J Psychiatry. 2000;176(4):379-86. [DOI:10.1192/bjp.176.4.379] [PMID]
34. Hassanvand Amouzadeh M. Evaluation of validity and reliability of social phobia inventory among students in Payame Noor university of Lorestan. J Fasa Univ Med Sci. 2017;7(2):181-9. [Persian]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Pajouhan Scientific Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb